So unless I can find the word in a dictionary I should probably opt for one of the first two stages? [30] As examples of the US style, The Chicago Manual of Style and The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommend unspaced em dashes. The character that can be used to unambiguously represent a hyphen. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes, which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign, which is also longer in some contexts. If you write non-fiction, you’ll use em dashes in one context only. There are three basic rules beyond the toll-free example above. Some of these fonts have em and en dashes that more or less fill the monospaced width they have available.

Preference for hyphen vs. en dash in ranges varies. Type has three—the hyphen, the en dash, and the em dash. 81–101). Note: A hyphen is used when the adjective precedes the noun. We’ll focus on American English for this explanation. The spaced em dash risks introducing excessive separation of words.

Similarly to their cousins in descriptive sentences, they signal an interruption — one that often grabs your attention. They can also be used around parenthetical expressions – such as this one – in place of the em dashes preferred by some publishers,[30] particularly where short columns are used, since em dashes can look awkward at the end of a line. The word "countrywide" has evolved from "country-wide". The vertical position may also be centered on the zero digit, and thus higher than the en dash and em dash, which are appropriate for use with lowercase text in a vertical position similar to the hyphen. Corpus studies indicate that em dashes are more commonly used in Russian than in English. The figure dash may therefore be preferred to the en dash for indicating a closed range of values. Dashes are, however, much less common than parentheses.

Ahh, I see, so you basically have to judge how common a compound word is and base your decision on that. “Open” means that there is a space between the two words and no hyphen. However, the "space, en dash, space" sequence is the predominant style in German and French typography.

[3] The Linux Libertine font also has the figure dash glyph. Often two hyphens are the substitute. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. Historically, the names of en dash and em dash came from the width of an uppercase N and uppercase M, respectively, in commonly used fonts. It is used within numbers (e.g., the phone number 555‒0199), especially in columns, for maintaining alignment.

The “en” dash is the length of the capital letter “N.” Similarly, the “em” dash is the length of the capital letter “M.” I wish we had better names for these helpful but pesky creatures! [citation needed] Sometimes this happened to em and en dashes, even when the 8-bit encoding supported them or when an alternative representation using hyphen-minuses is an option. [26] However, other authorities disagree and state there should be no space between an en dash and the adjacent text. These are the colors of the flag: red, white, and blue. Compare commas, em dashes and parentheses (respectively) when no internal commas intervene: "At that age I once stabbed my best friend, Fred, with a pair of pinking shears in the base of the neck, enraged because he had been given the comprehensive sixty-four-crayon Crayola box—including the gold and silver crayons—and would not let me look closely at the box to see how Crayola had stabilized the built-in crayon sharpener under the tiers of crayons. In contrast, the en dash is generally used for a range of values. En dashes may also be preferred to em dashes when text is set in narrow columns, such as in newspapers and similar publications, since the en dash is smaller. In these situations, en dashes must have a single space on each side. In. Most typesetting and word processing expects word spacing to vary to support full justification. Modern computer software typically has support for many more characters and is usually capable of rendering both the en and em dashes correctly—albeit sometimes with an inconvenient input method. There is no matching closing quotation mark; typically a new paragraph will be started, introduced by a dash, for each turn in the dialog. In a related use, it may visually indicate the shift between speakers when they overlap in speech.

for the. For example, compare "12 June – 3 July" with "12 June–3 July". The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to the hyphen and minus sign but differs from these symbols in length and, in some fonts, height above the baseline. The next stage is to understand the rules for applying each in its own context (e.g., should “low income” be hyphenated?). Figure dash. Terms pertaining to the World Wide Web follow the same variations (“web page,” “webmaster

Notice two points about the em dashes in this sentence. The hyphen is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

In Spanish, em dashes can be used to mark off parenthetical phrases. [50] In Russian, the em dash is used for the present copula (meaning "am"/"is"/"are"), which is unpronounced in spoken Russian. This practice has continued despite the development of computer lettering.[42][43]. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! The horizontal bar (.mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}U+2015 ― ), also known as a quotation dash, is used to introduce quoted text. The swung dash (U+2053 ⁓ ) resembles a lengthened tilde, and is used to separate alternatives or approximates. The spelling of compound words is one of those not-so-sexy but majorly useful topics that writers should have a handle on.The right spellings can make manuscripts look good and help convey the correct meanings of our phrases. Unlike in English, the em dashes are spaced like brackets, i.e., there is a space between main sentence and dash, but not between parenthetical phrase and dash. It may be distinct from an em dash in its coding (see Horizontal bar). You may also place em dashes at the end of a sentence instead of a colon. The Writing Cooperative is a community of people helping each other write better. Web: Compound nouns are open (“web press” “food web”) or closed (webfoot, spiderweb); check the dictionary. They wept like anything to see The two-hyphen em dash proxy is perhaps more common, being a widespread convention in the typewriting era.

I love them so much that I overuse them in my writing, particularly during the first draft stage when I cannot be bothered with deciding whether I’m writing a full sentence. The em dash is equally suitable if the quotation dash is unavailable or is contrary to the house style being used.

An em dash may be used to indicate omitted letters in a word redacted to an initial or single letter or to fillet a word, by leaving the start and end letters whilst replacing the middle letters with a dash or dashes (for the purposes of censorship or simply data anonymization). You will rarely use en dashes in American English. For example, the sequence "hyphen, en dash, em dash, minus" shows as - – — − in a monospace font. The en dash is sometimes used as a substitute for the minus sign, when the minus sign character is not available since the en dash is usually the same width as a plus sign. ", "Typing Special Characters on a Macintosh Keyboard", Wiktionary list of English phrases with em dash, Intellectual property protection of typefaces, Punctuation and other typographic symbols,, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Articles with incomplete citations from December 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, President Jimmy Carter, in office from 1977 to 1981. In modern fonts, the length of the en dash is not standardized, and the en dash is often more than half the width of the em dash. A section on the 2-em rule (⸺) also explains that the 2-em can be used to mark an abrupt break in direct or reported speech, but a space is used before the 2-em if a complete word is missing, while no space is used if part of a word exists before the sudden break. How to use community-wide in a sentence. Completely open: a wide-open … In such cases, its use is based purely on space considerations and is not necessarily related to other typographical concerns. This is a quotation dash. Relatedly, in ranges that include negative numbers, "to" is used to avoid ambiguity or awkwardness (for example, "temperatures ranged from −18 °C to −34 °C"). In this use, it is sometimes doubled. Hyphenation of wide-eyed.

In consequence, it became common to substitute the nearest available punctuation mark or symbol. The Write Up delivers writing advice, encouragement, and challenges right to your inbox each month. How to use wide-open in a sentence. Now, there are several exceptions to this rule. In Unicode, the en dash is U+2013 (decimal 8211). The en dash but not the em dash indicates spans or differentiation, where it may be considered to replace "and" or "to": The em dash or the horizontal bar, but not the en dash, is used to set off the sources of quotes: The horizontal bar or the em dash, but not the en dash, introduces quoted text at line start.

Community-wide definition is - operative or effective throughout the whole community. But you first need to decide which symbol you need for the job before you grapple with how to apply it. When an act of the U. S. Congress is named using the surnames of the senator and representative who sponsored it, the hyphen-minus is used in the short title; thus the short title of Public Law 111–203 is "The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act", with a hyphen-minus rather than an en dash between "Dodd" and "Frank".

Compound words can be open (separate words with spaces between them), closed (a single word, no spaces or hyphens), or hyphenated. Have you ever been baffled by these levitating lines when writing? Let’s investigate more pleasant symbols, shall we? When an em dash is unavailable in a particular character encoding environment—as in the ASCII character set—it has usually been approximated as a double (--) or triple (---) hyphen-minus.

The final rule is a little easier: “hyphenate compounds that end with the terms borne, like, and wide (both before and after the noun) unless the term is listed as closed in Merriam-Webster.”. Don’t worry about it too much when reading this article because the purpose is to understand first when you need a hyphen, en dash, or em dash, not to know all the rules for each. Used in mathematics.

You’ll find it used most often in number ranges, such as 2000–2012, or page numbers, like 45–47. On the other hand, a spaced en dash may be ambiguous when it is also used for ranges, for example, in dates or between geographical locations with internal spaces. When two words are used together to yield a new meaning, a compound is formed. Works when using the Australian, British, Canadian, Finnish, French, German, Irish, Irish Extended, Italian, Pro Italian, Russian, US, US Extended, or Welsh keyboard layouts. He was the miracle ingredient Z-147. Red, white, and blue—these are the colors of the flag. Sigh.

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